Monday, 27 March 2017

13th Century-style Manuscript Copy of the Ad instructionem iuniorem of Simon de Hinton

Magistra Nicolaa de Bracton

The project

In 1999, I completed my PhD thesis--a critical edition of a 13th century Dominican basic theology text by Simon de Hinton known from its incipit (first words) as Ad instructionem iuniorem (For the Instruction of juniors)  It is thought that this text was originally used by Dominicans looking to obtain their license to preach.  The contents focus on practical theology regarding the Credo, the Lord's Prayer, the Sacraments, the Beatitudes, the Virtues, the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, and the Vices.  The manuscript had a remarkably long life, circulating until into the 16th century and even being printed (in a somewhat mutated version) in the early 18th century.  There are 56 extant manuscripts, and during its life the text seemed to have evolved away from a text with a specific purpose to a more general one as sort of a quick guide to practical theology. Later copies become increasingly ideosyncratic. My PhD work focused on creating a critical edition--in this case, an attempt to establish what the original most likely looked like--based on four of the thirty manuscripts I viewed.
When one completes one's PhD work, a bound copy is prepared for the archives of the university granting the degree.  It was in ordering this copy that I first had the idea:  I had, essentially, produced the 57th copy of this work.  Wouldn't it be wonderful to produce that copy in a truly medieval manner--copied by hand, as a 13th century scholar or stationer might have done?

It took me sixteen years to realize this dream.  I have been practicing calligraphy for about 20 years.  Utilitarian works, such as charters, have always been a favourite, and having studied Latin palaeography, I had been always eager to use the abbreviations I learned to read as part of my research.  The Midrealm's Calf to Codex project was my inspiration (I contributed a small piece to this work, and in doing so saw the amazing things being done).

The proposal that was accepted was to copy the Ad instructionem iuniorem by hand.  The bulk of the work would be done using modern substitutes for period materials – vegetable parchment paper (Fabriano Pergamon), Windsor and Newton India ink, and metal Brause nibs.  However, the opening gathering would then be recopied onto manuscript vellum using hand cut quills and oak gall ink (both made by me).  The final book would be bound with a limp binding.

Layout and Script

I wanted this manuscript to replicate the look on the page of a 13th century scholarly text.  These books were meant for regular use by students, rather than as luxury items.  Therefore, the illumination in these books is normally minimal, and the text itself is often highly abbreviated to both save on costs and time needed to produce such a manuscript.  While I did not have any images of the manuscripts I had originally viewed during my initial research over 20 years ago, I did have access (thanks to the British Library) to similar theological treatises.  The two-column layout I selected for the work is typical of these books in the 13th century.


Harley MS 3244, f19r[1]


BL Harley MS 524 Theological tracts f 23v

A Rus' Coronation Ceremony

Magistra Nicolaa de Bracton

When Siegfried and Xristina became Prince and Princess of Ealdormere, I was presented with an opportunity to put together a Rus' coronation ceremony.  I have been writing ceremonies for about twenty years now, starting with my own Laurel elevation ceremony.  The majority have been Peerage ceremonies, which present certain challenges, particularly a very limited (both in time period and in culture) pool of period exemplars to adapt. Peerage ceremonies often become a process of extrapolation based on other sources, such as guild statutes, written documents detailing rights or procedures for groups of people or individuals, literary descriptions, or descriptions of ceremonies meant for groups of people (such as church liturgy or civic processionals), in combination with SCA traditions. 

The situation is different for coronations.  We actually have information on quite a number of extant period coronation liturgies for a number of cultures thanks to R.W. Wooley's Coronation Rites, published in 1915 as part of the Cambridge Handbooks of Liturgical Study.  This series was concerned with the study of Christian liturgy, and this brings forward the first issue for anyone seeking to use and understand historical coronation ceremonies for SCA use: These were profoundly Christian rites.  Indeed, kingship was widely considered an eighth Holy Order in the western Church, and many of the rituals and meaning in these ceremonies are intimately connected to the Christian foundations of medieval society.   This presents two dilemmas for the SCA ceremonialist: First, how to alter the religious portions of the ceremony to keep some of the meaning but without explicit reference to Christianity; but almost as important, how to explain to those witnessing the underlying concepts which would have been implicitly understood in medieval society.

In the case at hand, Siegfried and Xristina were specifically looking for an appanage Rus' ceremony.  Wooley's work contains descriptions of Byzantine imperial ceremonies and later Russian ceremonies; there is a clear line of descent from the former to the latter.  However, this would be the coronation not of a Tsar or an Emperor, but of a Prince.  We settled on basing the approach on the institutions of Novgorod in the 13th century.  Novgorod was generally recognized as the second most important city in Kievan Rus' and was often ruled by the eldest son of the Prince of Kiev. At the same time, day-to-day government was provided by the veche (public assembly), who elected a posadnik (mayor), tysyatsky (head of the militia) and even archbishops from the ranks of the boyars.  By the twelfth century, the power of the princes was starting to decline and the veche began to take a more pronounced rule in inviting a Prince to rule the city and tightly dictating what he could and could not do through a document called a ra'd. The Prince's role remained important, however, as a military commander and the ultimate judicial and legal authority.[1] 

16th Century Style Arrows

Magistra Nicolaa de Bracton

I have been fletching my own arrows for several years. Up until recently, I had not attempted to give my arrows a more authentic look and feel. However, the acquisition of a hickory traditional longbow and the desire to participate in the period archery shoot at Pennsic, in which all equipment must be as authentic as possible, spurred a project to create a set of more authentic-style arrows.
Shafts
According to Roger Ascham in Toxophilus or The Schole of Shooting, dated to 1545, the best woods for arrows include birch, hardbearm, oak, and ash.
Ffor some wood belonges to ye excedyng part, some to ye scant part, some to ye meane, as Brafell, Turkiewood, Fuflicke, Sugar chefle, and such lyke, make deade, heuy lumpish, hobblyng shaftes. Againe Hulder, black thorne, Serues tree, Beche, Elder, Aspe, and Salowe, eyther for theyr wekenes or lyghtenesse, make holow, starting, sludding, gaddynge shaftes. But Birche, Hardbeme, some Ooke, and fome Affhe, beynge bothe stronge ynoughe to stande in a bowe, and alfo lyght ynoughe to flye far, are best for a meane, whiche is to be foughte oute in euery thinge.[1]
 He also states that the wood should be well seasoned and must be “as the grain lyeth” or it will not fly cleanly.[2] Actual shafts from the war arrows found on the Mary Rose were constructed of a number of hardwoods, with aspen (despite Ascham’s dismissal of it as too light) and poplar being most common.[3]  Lengths generally ranged from 29”-31” in length, which may sound relatively short until one realizes these were used with bows that might well have a draw weight of over 100 lbs.  Diameter of these arrows could range from 1/2" to 3/8” and were often significantly tapered from nock to shoulder. 


Arrows from the Mary Rose, as found and modern replicas.   From the Mary Rose museum website, http://www.maryrose.org/meet-the-crew/soldiers-and-gunners/archery/
In comparison, my longbow has a draw weight of 35 lbs and I generally use 5/16” shafting.  The shafts of these arrows are commercially manufactured of Port Orford cedar.  The shafts were sealed with two coats of tung oil.

Romanesque Bookbinding Project

Magistra Nicolaa de Bracton

The project

In 1999, I completed my PhD thesis--a critical edition of a 13th century Dominican basic theology text by Simon de Hinton known from its incipit (first words) as Ad instructionem iuniorem (For the Instruction of juniors)  It is thought that this text was originally used by Dominicans looking to obtain their license to preach.  The contents focus on practical theology regarding the Credo, the Lord's Prayer, the Sacraments, the Beatitudes, the Virtues, the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, and the Vices.  The manuscript had a remarkably long life, circulating until into the 16th century and even being printed (in a somewhat mutated version) in the early 18th century.  There are 56 extant manuscripts, and during its life the text seemed to have evolved away from a text with a specific purpose to a more general one as sort of a quick guide to practical theology. Later copies become increasingly ideosyncratic. My PhD work focused on creating a critical edition--in this case, an attempt to establish what the original most likely looked like--based on four of the thirty manuscripts I viewed.

When one completes one's PhD work, a bound copy is prepared for the archives of the university granting the degree.  It was in ordering this copy that I first had the idea:  I had, essentially, produced the 57th copy of this work.  Wouldn't it be wonderful to produce that copy in a truly medieval manner--copied by hand, as a 13th century scholar or stationer might have done?

It took me sixteen years to realize this dream.  I have been practicing calligraphy for about 20 years.  Utilitarian works, such as charters, have always been a favourite, and having studied Latin palaeography, I had been always eager to use the abbreviations I learned to read as part of my research.  The Midrealm's Calf to Codex project was my inspiration (I contributed a small piece to this work, and in doing so saw the amazing things being done).

The proposal that was accepted was to copy the Ad instructionem iuniorem by hand.  The bulk of the work would be done using modern substitutes for period materials -- pergamenata, Windsor and Newton India ink, and metal Brause nibs.  However, the opening gathering would then be recopied onto manuscript vellum using hand cut quills and oak gall ink (both made by me).  The original plan was that the book would be bound with a limp binding.

I completed the copying of the text in May, 2016 and was now ready for binding.

Sunday, 18 May 2014

Writing in the SCA: An Overview and Discussion

By THLaird Colyne Stewart (mka Todd Fischer)
Fruits of our Labours (FOOL), May 2014 (AS 49)

POETRY

  • Norse poetry
  • Anglo-saxon poetry

Places to Publish Poetry:

SONGS

Filking

Filking is a modern term for taking the tune from a song and writing new lyrics for it. Outside of the SCA, filks usually make references to science-fiction, fantasy, video games and other ‘geek’ culture. Usually when filking the borrowed tune is from a modern song. If you’re using a tune from a period song, that is more accurately called contre-fait.

Contre-fait

Like filk, contre-fait is the practice of taking the tune from an existing song and writing new lyrics for it. This often happened in period, with regional lyrics popping up for the same songs.

Original Songs

Places to Publish Songs:

SHORT STORIES

Places to Publish Short Stories:

EVENT REPORTS

Places to Publish Event Reports:

A&S PAPERS

Places to Publish A&S Papers:

AWARD SCROLLS

Places to Publish Award Scroll Wordings:

PROCLAMATIONS

In period, when a tournament was held, a proclamation would be made. If your event is going to have a tournament, why not write such an announcement?

Places to Publish Proclamations:
  • A personal SCA blog
  • The e-list

LETTERS

Sending emails or writing letters is also an opportunity to flex writing muscles. You can base your communications on letters and epistles from period.

Places to Publish Award Letters:
  • A personal SCA blog
  • The e-list

CHARTERS

Occasionally the opportunity may arise for you to write a charter. Guilds often have charters, and sometime when the crown grants lands, they may want a charter written up.

Places to Publish Charters:

LIST OF HELPFUL WEBSOURCES

Full Texts: Collections

Literature

Letters

Poetry

Writing (Misc.)


Writing Award Scrolls Based on Period Sources

By THLaird Colyne Stewart (mka Todd Fischer)
Fruits of our Labours (FOOL), May 2014 (AS 49)
Condensed from a 60 page article.

MANDATORY INFORMATION ON SCA AWARD SCROLLS
  • The name of the Royals bestowing the award
  • The recipient’s full SCA name
  • The full name of the award being given
  • The reason the award is being given (such as for service, skill in the arts, etc.)
  • The date the award is given
  • The location of the event where the award is given
 ANATOMY OF A SCROLL
  • The Address, or opening, proclaims to the populace the impending action,
  • The Intitulation contains the name(s) of the monarch(s) who are bestowing the award,
  • The Notification and Exposition state the reason for the action being proclaimed,
  • The Disposition names the recipient, the award and the reason they are receiving it,
  • The Blazon and Emblazon (words and depiction) of the Arms (on those occasions when Arms are given),
  • The Corroboration affirms the action,
  • The Location and Date (many kingdoms include the modern year as well as the year of the society),
  • The Royal signature block,
 Example broken into these sections (except for the blazon and emblazon, as the recipient already had Arms):

[Address]: TO ALL AND SINGULAR as well Nobles and Gentles as others to whom these presents shall come [Intitulation]: from Trumbrand and Kaylah, King and Queen of the realm of Ealdormere, that stretches from Lacus Ealdormearc in the South to the reaches of the Far North, and from Lacus Pentamerus in the West to the borders of the Kingdom of the East, send greetings in our Grace everlasting.

[Notification and Exposition]: WHEREAS anciently from the beginning the valiant and virtuous acts of worthy persons have been commended to the world with sundry monuments and remembrances of their good deserts. [Disposition]: Amongst these stands the Award of the Orion, which was devised in the beginning to recognize the skill of artisans.

AND being deserved, Ysabeau D’Comport, in the region of the Rising Waters, is hereby so recognized for her skill in the research of clothing and the culinary arts and granted said Award of the Orion.

[Corroboration]: IN WITNESS WHEROF We Trumbrand and Kaylah have set hereunto Our hand, and seal, [Location and Date]: this [ ] day of [ ] in the year of the Society 48, while sitting our Thrones at the Pennsic War.

[Signatures Block]

Address
  • All shall know that
  • Be it known that
  • Come let all know that
  • Do ye all hear and tell others that
  • Each and all shall know that
  • Far and wide though Our subjects may roam, words of their deeds still reach Our ears....
  • Great feats of bravery and skill at arms have been displayed by....
  • Hear ye all that
  • It is the judgment of the throne and the peoples will that great acts shall be rewarded....
  • Joyous is the message of the Angels that shouts great news to the world and listen to their voices and know
  • Know ye that
  • Let all know that
  • May it be known to all throughout the land that
  • Now know that
  • One and all shall know that
  • Pray let all know that
  • Queens joys are many and so are her burdens, when one comes along that lightens that load it should be recognized...
  • Rejoice in the words of the Crown
  • Salutations to all that hear Our words.
  • To all manner of folk let it be known that
  • Unto all who hear or see Our words We give greetings
  • Verily, We the
  • Whereas it has come to our attention that
  • Ye shall know that
  • Zealous are We, that Our words be known that
 Intitulation
  • We _________, King by right of Arms and _________, by grace and courtesy Queen,
  • We _________, King by right of Arms and _________, Queen and patroness of courtly graces,
  • We, _________ and _________, rightful Sovereigns of _________
 Notification and Exposition
  • mindful of the steadfast service of our worthy subject
  • it is Our duty and Our pleasure to reward such of Our subjects as do deserve Our favor
  • the service and dedication of Our subject have become apparent to us and to all
  • we have been pleased by the actions of Our esteemed subject
 Disposition
  • advance
  • bestow upon ______
  • confer upon ______
  • elevate
 Blazon
  • <blazon>, to be borne by [him/her] and no other throughout the Known World.
  • <blazon>, as [his/her] distinctive device, with infringement by none.
  • <blazon>, to be borne and displayed by Lord/Lady <first name> and no other in all the lands of the Known World.
Corroboration
  • Bestowed this
  • Done by Our hands
  • To which We have set Our hand and seal
 Location and Date
  • at the ______ of ______ this ______ th day of ______ A.S. ______
  • in the common reckoning of years the ______ th, and of the Society ______ th.
  • Anno Domini ______, which is Anno Societatis ______.
  • in the ______ th year by the Common Reckoning, being the ______ th year from the founding of the Society.
RECEIVING A SCROLL ASSIGNMENT
  • Assigned by the Kingdom Signet
  • Contacted by another scribe who is doing the illumination and calligraphy but would like someone else to do the wording.

HOW TO RESEARCH
Researching the Recipient

  • Ealdormere wiki (once its back up)
  • Google search their name
  • Google search for each aspect of their name, to try and at least identify what region their persona was from
  • Contact their local Baron and/or Baroness, who often know—or can find out—their persona
  • Contact their local seneschal
  • The SCA Armorial (http://oanda.sca.org/). 
Sample questions:

  • their persona’s nationality and time period
  • their activities within the SCA
  • what interests they may have.
Sources Available for Adaptation

  • Assizes: a decree or edict rendered at a court session
  • Charters: a grant of authority or rights, allowing the recipient to exercise those rights
  • Chronicles: written histories, such as Froissart’s Chronicles
  • Concessions of Arms: documents granting heraldry
  • Constitutions
  • Declarations: a judgment of the court
  • Decrees: a rule of law issued by a head of state
  • Laws
  • Letters: personal correspondence
  • Letters Patent: a written order granting an office, right or title
  • Masses
  • Ordinances: a law made by a local authority
  • Papal Bulls: a letters patent or charter issued by the pope
  • Poems
  • Prayers
  • Rolls: a term for written records
  • Statutes
  • Treaties
HOW TO ADAPT FROM PERIOD SOURCES
How Documents Were Dated
Specify a week day and/or a nearby religious feast day, and the year of the current monarch’s reign. Examples:
  • Given at Ghent the fifth day of November in the twenty-fifth year of our reign.)
  • In the year of the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ 870, on the day before the Nones of March, in the 32nd year of the most glorious king Charles…
  • In the year 1164 from the Incarnation of our Lord, in the fourth year of the papacy of Alexander, in the tenth year of the most illustrious king of the English, Henry II…
There are numerous other conventions for dating used in period sources, including:
  • Kalends: the first day of any  month
  • Nones: nine days before the Ides
  • Ides: the 15th day of any onth with 31 days, otherwise it is the 13th day
  • Vigil: the night before a major feast
  • Saint’s Days: Catholicism associates multiple saints to each day of the year
 Adapting from a Poem, Song or Saga
  • Use poem as introduction to scroll text, or as scroll text (if all required information is included)
Source Poem
Brian Ó Ruairc, my chosen darling,
gentle enough at the bestowal of a jewel;
and hard enough in an enclosure of slim spears,
the nut from the cluster of the Gael of the Gréag.

Another Murchadh mac Brian, a salmon of the Shannon --
Í Ruairc has a likeness to Te's Fort --
or Niall Caille who did not refuse one man,
his face's _____ cliff.

King of Calraighe of the numerous raids,
and also of Tara; plow of Niall;
two words from Bearchán's mouth;
and king on the old plains of Banba -- Brian.

Scroll Text
Corwyn Galbraith, the aiding Raven,
Gentle enough at the bestowal of rings;
And hard enough when upon the fields;
The bear from the gate of the Skelder.

Baron Corwyn, the worker,
Serving always, his king and crown,
Like the maiden he will not say no
When work there is to be done.

Master Corwyn, of the numerous skills,
Chef and cook, steward and baron,
Most worthy of the northern folk,
I bow to him in honour.


Religious Sources
  • The SCA tries to keep religion in the background (since it can cause disputes or hurt feelings) but you are going to come across religious axioms all the time.
  • Leave them in.
  • Take them out.
  • Change them (such as the Lawspeaker instead of an archbishop, or heralds instead of bishops, or Lady Ealdormere instead of God).
Sounding Medieval
  • The “rule of three”: use three verbs or nouns instead of one. Examples:
  • To have, hold, and receive to the aforesaid Earl… (Creation of the King’s Brother, Edmund of Woodstock, as Earl of Kent, R.C.V. 17, by Edward II, 1321)
  • …and do invest him with the style, title and name and honour of the place aforesaid… (Creation of William le Scrope as Earl of Wiltes, R.C.V. 117, by Richard II, 1397)
  • …he and his heirs shall thence have his Earldom as freely, peaceably and honourably as any Earl… (Creation of Alberic or Aubrey de Vers as Earl of Oxford, R.C.V. 3, by Henry II, date unknown)
LIST OF HELPFUL WEBSOURCES
Armorials
·          Medieval Armorials, http://www.armorial.dk/
Bestiaries
·          The Aberdeen Bestiary, http://www.abdn.ac.uk/bestiary/
Charters
·          ASChart: Anglo-Saxon Charters, http://www.aschart.kcl.ac.uk/index.html
·          Cartularium Saxonicum, http://www.ota.ox.ac.uk/headers/0511.xml
·          Charter Resources: Syllabus of Scottish Cartularies, http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/scottishstudies/charters/cartularies.htm
·          Kemble: Anglo-Saxon Charters, http://www.kemble.asnc.cam.ac.uk/
·          Medieval Genealogy: Charter Links, http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk/sources/charters.shtml
·          Monasterium, http://www.monasterium.net/
·          Royal Charters, http://medievalwriting.50megs.com/word/charter1.htm
Concessions
·          Private English Concessions of Arms of the 14th and 15th Centuries, http://verysleepy.itgo.com/private.htm
Dates
·          Catholic Online: Saints and Angels, http://www.catholic.org/saints/
·          On-line Calendar of Saints Days, http://medievalist.net/calendar/home.htm
·          Baron Adhemar de Villarquemada’s article on the SCA website (http://www.sca.org.au/scribe/articles/period_text.htm).
·          Converting between modern dates and SCA dates, http://www.sca.org/links/calendar.html.
Documents (Misc.)
·          De Re Militari: Primary Sources (military records), http://deremilitari.org/primary-sources/
·          Digital Scriptorium, http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/digitalscriptorium/
·          Documents on the Lord Lyon, http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/lyondocs.htm
·          English Historical Documents, http://historyofengland.typepad.com/documents_in_english_hist/
·          EuroDocs: Online Sources for European History, http://eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Main_Page
·          Period Russian Scroll Wordings, http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/scrollwording.html
·          Scriptorium: Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts Online, http://scriptorium.english.cam.ac.uk/
Full Texts: Collections
·          Archives, Libraries, Texts and Manuscripts, http://tudorhistory.org/links/books.html
·          The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/medieval.asp
·          Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts (British Library), http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/welcome.htm
·          Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse, http://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/cme/
·          Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies - Corpus of Electronic Texts (CELT), http://www.ucc.ie/celt/publishd.html
·          From Dawn to Dawn: Troubadour Poetry (trans. into English), http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/French/FromDawnToDawn.htm
·          Hanover Historical Texts Collection, http://history.hanover.edu/project.php
·          Internet Medieval Sourcebook, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.asp
·          Internet Medieval Sourcebook - Full Text Sources, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook2.asp
·          Irish Scripts Onscreen, http://www.isos.dias.ie/
·          Medieval Manuscripts on the Web, http://faculty.arts.ubc.ca/sechard/512digms.htm
·          Medieval Source Material on the Internet (Particularly Heralds' Visitations and Charters), http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk/sources/olmed.shtml
·          The National Library of Wales (search function), http://www.llgc.org.uk/
·          On-line Russian Manuscripts and Period Sources, http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/manuscripts.html
·          Slovak Archives, http://arsq.gov.si/Query/detail.aspx?ID=140086
Full Texts: Single Titles
·          The Auchinleck Manuscript, http://auchinleck.nls.uk/
·          The Book of the Order of Chivalry or Knighthood, http://www.rgle.org.uk/Llull_B_C.htm
·          The Dialogus de Scaccario, or Dialogue concerning the Exchequer, late 12th century, by Richard FitzNeal, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/excheq.asp
·          The St Albans Psalter, http://www.abdn.ac.uk/stalbanspsalter/
Languages
·          The National Archives - Beginner's Latin, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/latin/beginners/dating/default.htm
Literature
·          Medieval Scottish Literature, http://medievalscotland.org/scotbiblio/literature.shtml
Letters
Masses and Prayers
·          Mass of the Roman Rite (Celebration of the Eucharist) in Latin/English, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/latinmass2.asp
Patents
·          15th Century English Patents of Arms, http://verysleepy.itgo.com/grants.htm
·          Scottish Patents of Arms, http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/lyondocs.htm#Patents
Poetry
·          Medieval Lyrics and Ballads, http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/English_Literature/medieval/medieval.htm
·          Medieval Welsh Poetry, http://faculty.arts.ubc.ca/sechard/492welsh.htm
Rolls
·          Calendar of Patent Rolls, http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/patentrolls/
·          Chancery Rolls, http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk/sources/rolls.shtml
·          Henry III Fine Rolls Project (The fine rolls of Henry III 1216-1272), http://www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/content/calendar/calendar.html
Scriptoriums
·          The Scriptorium, http://scriptoriumsca.blogspot.ca/
Statutes
·          Statuta Armorum (The Statutes of Arms), c. 1260, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1260statute-arms.asp
Writing (Misc.)
·          Byzantine Literature, http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/kapparis/byzantium/byzantium.html
·          Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse, http://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/cme/

·          Medieval Writing, http://medievalwriting.50megs.com/

Sunday, 30 March 2014

New Benefactor!

Many thanks go to Master Sylard of Eagleshaven who donated over 750 issues of the Ursus, the Eoforing and Tournaments Illuminated to the Archive yesterday at the Spring A&S Faire.